NEW DELHI: Employment levels, particularly for women, in 2015-16 as against 2005-06 have registered a sharp dip though women were employed in larger proportions than men in occupations such as “professional”, “technical”, “administrative” and “managerial”, the national family health survey has found.
A slightly higher percentage of women at 10% than men at 8% are employed in a professional, technical, administrative, or managerial occupations. Interestingly, 11% women who worked in past year were self employed.
Data collected by the survey shows employment levels have come down to 24% in 2015-16 for women, as compared to 36% in 2005-06. The figure is less stark for men but there is still a drop, with percentage currently employed down from 85% to 75% in the past decade.
The term ’employed’ in the 2015-16 NFHS-4 is for respondents who were employed in the seven days before the survey. It included respondents who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other reason.
“70% of women and 19% of men reported that they were not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey,” the survey said.
The survey found that men are three times as likely to be currently employed as women. The occupations have been categorised as professional, technical, administrative, managerial, clerical, sales and services, skilled manual, unskilled manual and agriculture.
Both women and men are most commonly employed as agricultural workers (48% of women and 32% of men), followed by production workers (21% and 32%, respectively).
A large majority of employed women (81%) and men (90%) earned cash for their work, but 15% of women and 8% of men did not receive any payment.
Jammu & Kashmir (14%), and Bihar and Assam (15% each) have the lowest percentage of women currently employed. More than one-third of women were currently employed in Manipur (41%), Telangana (39%), Meghalaya and Mizoram (35% each), and Andhra Pradesh (34%).
Amongst men, in the 15-19 years age group, 29.4% are currently employed, with 4.5% ‘not currently employed’. In the age group 20-24 years among men, 63.9% are employed. The percentage of unemployed goes down thereafter, ranging between 8.2% to 1.9% for 25-49 year old men.